Argyreia speciosa Sweet (Family — Convolvulaceae) is an important ‘rasayana’ herb used extensively as an adaptogen in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Vridhadaru has been extensively used to control inflammation of varied nature. Click to more about the various Elephant Creeper benefits & Uses!. The present work on the aerial parts of Argyreia speciosa Sweet ( Convolvulaceae) has led to the isolation of a new lipid ester (1) and four.

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Department of Pharmacology, A. College of Pharmacy and G. Sweet is a popular Indian medicinal plant, which has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various diseases.

This plant is pharmacologically studied for argyteia, aphrodisiac, sleciosa, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antiviral, nematicidal, antiulcer, anticonvulsant, analgesic and central nervous depressant activities.

A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities reported are included in view of the many recent findings of importance on this plant.

The term herb s;eciosa to a plant used for medicinal purpose. Medicinal herbs and plant extracts are now generally considered as effective medicines to be respected, appreciated and they play a major role in modern pharmacy. There has been an explosion of scientific information concerning plants, crude plant extracts and various substances from plants as medical agents during the last 20 to 30 years.

Although herbal medicine has existed since the dawn of time, our knowledge of how plants actually affect human physiology remains largely unexplored. Numbers of agryreia are claiming various medicinal uses and many researches are going on in this view.

Vridhadaru/वृद्धदारु/Elephant Creeper/Argyreia Speciosa

One such plant, Argyreia speciosa L. In this review a comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities are included in view of the many recent findings of importance on this plant. Sweet, Argyreia nervosa Burm. Vriddhadara is considered as a rejuvenator and useful in edema, deranged vatarheumatoid arthritis, cough, dyspnea and fever; invigorating and picchila.

It is woody climber found throughout India, up to an altitude of m. The roots of Argyreia speciosa are varying in size as well as in thickness. The thin roots are usually mm in diameter and show somewhat smooth brownish exterior.

When cut transversely they show a thin periderm and cambium, appearing as a dark line almost midway between the centre and the outer circumference separating the outer phloem from the inner central wood. The thicker roots are mm in diameter or ever more have argyrdia rough exterior due to the presence of large number of lenticels.

A transversely cut surface of such root shows colorless tertiary phloem and a pink-colored crescent-shaped tertiary xylem [ Figure 1 ]. The stem is white and tomentose in young stages. The lower surface of the leaf is entirely covered with hair, which gives the leaf a silvery soft wooly appearance. The upper surface of the leaf is green, glabrous and shows the markings argyriea nerves by slight depressions.

The mature leaf is dorsiventral, unicostate with a strong midnerve and several adgyreia lateral nerves, alternate, petiolate, acute at the apex and cordate at the base. The margin is entire but slightly wavy near the base.

Lateral nerves pairs arise alternatively on the midrib; the single nerves bifurcate before reaching the edge; the anterior branch unites with the posterior one of the neighboring nerve; an arched nervule connecting the two branches reach the margin.


Petioles stout and cylindric, a little shorter than the length of the blade are completely covered with wooly tomentum [ Figure 3 ].

The seeds are more or less triangular, 0. The hilum is distinct, brown colored, rounded situated in the spherical depression at the broader end.

The outer surface is glabrous or at places with whitish patches of pulp. The texture is hard and not easily breakable. The seeds are exalbuminous. The embryo of seed is large having two-folded cotyledons and distinct plumule of whitish black to blackish brown color. The odor is not characteristic while it tastes slightly astringent [ Figure 4 ]. The young root shows an epidermis composed of small cubical parenchymal cells, followed by a wide cortex consisting of mostly isodiametric or in some cases, slightly oval cells.

The primary vascular structure is tetrarch to pentarch. The mature root possesses a narrow periderm of layers of cork cells, a single layer of phellogen and layers of phelloderm cells. The phelloderm cells close to the phellogen are somewhat tangentially elongated and thin walled but become gradually polyhedral. Some of them possess rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.

The secondary phloem is a wide zone, consisting of sieve tube elements with companion cells and phloem parenchyma. Resin canals, small strands of tertiary xylem and tertiary phloem are found scattered throughout the region. The secondary xylem is composed of large xylem vessels, tracheids, fiber tracheids and fibers. The vessels are drum-shaped, having bordered pits on the walls.

The tracheids are cylindrical and possess bordered pits on the walls. The wood fibers are long and tapering with pointed ends.

The young stem shows nonglandular hairs, which are uniseriate, multicellular and usually three-celled. Resin canals are distributed throughout the cortex. An amphiphloic siphonostele is present following the cortex.

Argyreia nervosa – Wikipedia

The mature stem shows the cork composed of layers of cells, which are stratified due to alternate arrangement of layers of large cells, followed by almost equal number of shorter cells. The secondary phloem is wide and occupies the greater portion.

A tertiary cambium arises in the secondary phloem and gives rise to tertiary dpeciosa and tertiary xylem strands. The xylem vessels are drum-shaped with well-marked perforation rims.

A few vessels are long and cylindrical. They also have bordered pits on the walls and there are no end-wall openings. The xylem fibers are long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. They are however, shorter and narrower as compared to the pericyclic fibres which have pointed, truncated ends and show in some cases peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. The transverse section of the leaf near the apex shows a prominent-ridged midrib on the lower surface and a small groove on the upper surface, while a section through the basal region presents a small ridge on the upper side as well.

The ventral cuticle is stratified while the dorsal is thin and simple. The epidermal cells of the upper side have synclinous walls with rubiaceous argyreja of sunken stomata. The openings of the latex canals are bound by cells. The epidermal cells of the underside differ from those of the upper in possessing smaller cells and about twice the number of stomata and openings of latex canals.

The cells of the epidermis along the spediosa on both sides of the leaf are roughly rectangular, straight-walled and completely devoid of appendages. The spongy tissue is composed of rounded cells enclosing air spaces and a few latex canals. The palisade cells are nearly rectangular, roughly four times longer than broad and are seen in the section usually in a single row only and rarely in two rows. A few latex canals are sometimes present in this zone as well.


The vascular bundles spceiosa hexagonal in transverse section and occur in characteristic, continuous single row chains. The transverse section of the petiole at the base is grooved along the ventral side while the groove becomes rather negligible at the apex. Arrangement of the tissues in the petiole is as in the stem. The vascular bundles are open, bi-collateral and arranged in a ring. The vasculature is represented by a shallow abaxial arc and a pair of adaxial traces.

Conjunctive parenchyma separates the xylem and the phloem tissues distinctly.

There are broad patches of phloem parenchyma. Xylary tissues of the leaf and the petiole are identical. Fresh vascular bundles are produced in the pith. The epidermal cells are barrel-shaped and most of them bear trichomes. Hypodermis or any mechanical tissues are completely lacking. Hexagonal cortical cells are smaller towards the periphery and the stele but are larger in the central region. The cortical cells merge gradually with the phloem parenchyma.

The endodermis and pericycle are not made out even in a very young petiole. The latex canals associated with xylary tissues are recognized. The trichomes are silvery giving a wooly cover to the dorsal surface of the leaf and the entire petiole. Each trichome has a barrel-shaped basal cells and filamentous apical cell, base of which is invariably swollen. Sometimes the basal cell may be divided into two. The midrib is seen as a semicircular projection on the abaxial face, and on the adaxial face it is in the form of small hump.

A single crescent-shaped bi-collateral vascular trace traverses in the center.

The rest of the area is occupied by parenchyma. The tissue details of the vasculature and ground is similar to that of the components in the petiole. Two functional and morphological types of trichomes occur, the short glandular nine-celled peltate and the long aglandular and two-celled.

The structure depicted by Singh as the pore of the latex canal are in fact the peltate glandular trichomes. The seeds of Argyreia speciosa yielded fatty oil, which was found to contain the glycosides of palmitic, oleic, stearic, behenic, speiosa and linolenic acid. Presence of branched fatty acids methylmyristic acid and methylstearic acid was also reported.

The other constituents isolated were caffeic acid and ethyl caffeate. These findings suggested the use of seeds for edible purpose. The hexane extract of the roots of Argyreia speciosa yielded tetradecanyl palmitate, 5,8-oxidotetracosanone. The root part of A. Powered roots are given with milk in synovitis and syphilis. A paste of roots along with Asparagus racemosus, Grewia hirsute speciosx Hemidesmus indicus is used for chronic cough, cold specoosa in consequent fever.

As an alterative and nervine tonic, powdered root specjosa soaked seven times during seven days in the juice of the tubers of Asparagus racemosus and dried.

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